Supplemental Services (SS) at Trinity Classical Academy has been an integral part of our school culture from the beginning.
Recognizing that the Lord creates each student uniquely with their own special gifts and talents, Trinity believes that a rigorous classical, Christian education should be available to all students.
Each SS program has been prayerfully and purposefully planned and implemented. Additionally, all programs support and help Trinity fulfill its mission of “providing a challenging education , grounded in the Christian faith and the classical tradition to produce young men and women of virtue, wisdom, purpose and courage.”
Our comprehensive system of academic and therapeutic support is designed to assist each learner in reaching his potential for Christ. Please contact Megan Howell at firstname.lastname@example.org for more information.
- THE SEEING STARS® PROGRAM
Symbol Imagery for Phonological and Orthographic Processing in Reading and Spelling
- The Seeing Stars® (SI™) program develops symbol imagery: the ability to visualize sounds and letters in words for both phonological and orthorgraphic processing. Students move through a series of steps – from single consonants/vowels to multisyllabic and contextual reading – to develop the imagery-language connection for competency in written language.
- VISUALIZING & VERBALIZING
for Language Comprehension and Thinking® (V/V®)
- The Visualizing and Verbalizing® (V/V®) program develops concept imagery for both oral and written language. Through a series of steps, students learn to create an imaged gestalt (whole) and integrate that imagery with language as a basis for language comprehension and thinking
Visualizing and Verbalizing® for Oral Language Comprehension and Expression
- The Talkies® program is the primer to the Visualizing and Verbalizing® (V/V®) program for students who need simpler, smaller steps of instruction to establish the imagery-language connection. The goal of Talkies instruction is to develop mental imagery as a base for language comprehension and expression. Talkies instruction may benefit students with prior third-party diagnoses of expressive language delays or autism spectrum disorders.
- The On Cloud Nine® Math (OCN™) program stimulates the ability to image and verbalize the concepts and processes of math. Concept imagery and numeral imagery are integrated with language to improve math computation and problem solving.
The Barton Reading & Spelling System is a one-on-one tutoring system that will greatly improve the spelling, reading, and writing skills of children who struggle due to dyslexia or a learning disability.
- Orton-Gillingham influenced
The Orton-Gillingham Multisensory Method was developed in the early 1930’s by Anna Gillingham and a group of master teachers. Dr. Samuel Orton assigned Anna’s group the task of designing a whole new way of teaching the phonemic structure of our written language to people with dyslexia. The goal was to create a sequential system that builds on itself in an almost 3-dimensional way. It must show how sounds and letters are related and how they act in words; it must also show how to attack a word and break it into smaller pieces. And it must be a multi-sensory approach, as dyslexic people learn best by involving all of their senses: visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic.
The Orton-Gillingham Multisensory Method is different from other reading methods in two ways: what is taught, and how it is taught.
What is taught?
- Phonemic Awareness is the first step. You must teach someone how to listen to a single word or syllable and break it into individual phonemes. They also have to be able to take individual sounds and blend them into a word, change sounds, delete sounds, and compare sounds — all in their head. These skills are easiest to learn before someone brings in printed letters.
- Phoneme/Grapheme Correspondence is the next step. Here you teach which sounds are represented by which letter(s), and how to blend those letters into single-syllable words.
- The Six Types of Syllables that compose English words are taught next. If students know what type of syllable they’re looking at, they’ll know what sound the vowel will make. Conversely, when they hear a vowel sound, they’ll know how the syllable must be spelled to make that sound.
- Probabilities and Rules are then taught. The English language provides several ways to spell the same sounds. For example, the sound /SHUN/ can be spelled either TION, SION, or CION. The sound of /J/ at the end of a word can be spelled GE or DGE. Dyslexic students need to be taught these rules and probabilities.
- Roots and Affixes, as well as Morphology are then taught to expand a student’s vocabulary and ability to comprehend (and spell) unfamiliar words. For instance, once a student has been taught that the Latin root TRACT means pull, and a student knows the various Latin affixes, the student can figure out that retract means pull again, contract means pull together, subtract means pull away (or pull under), while tractor means a machine that pulls.
How it is taught
- Simultaneous Multisensory Instruction: research has shown that dyslexic people who use all of their senses when they learn (visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic) are better able to store and retrieve the information. So a beginning dyslexic student might see the letter A, say its name and sound, and write it in the air — all at the same time.
- Intense Instruction with Ample Practice: instruction for dyslexic students must be much more intense, and offer much more practice, than for regular readers.
- Direct, Explicit Instruction: dyslexic students do not intuit anything about written language. So, you must teach them, directly and explicitly, each and every rule that governs our written words. And you must teach one rule at a time, and practice it until it is stable in both reading and spelling, before introducing a new rule.
- Systematic and Cumulative: by the time most dyslexic students are identified, they are usually quite confused about our written language. So you must go back to the very beginning and create a solid foundation with no holes. You must teach the logic behind our language by presenting one rule at a time and practicing it until the student can automatically and fluently apply that rule both when reading and spelling. You must continue to weave previously learned rules into current lessons to keep them fresh and solid. The system must make logical sense to our students, from the first lesson through the last one.
- Synthetic and Analytic: dyslexic students must be taught both how to take the individual letters or sounds and put them together to form a word (synthetic), as well as how to look at a long word and break it into smaller pieces (analytic). Both synthetic and analytic phonics must be taught all the time.
- Diagnostic Teaching: the teacher must continuously assess their student’s understanding of, and ability to apply, the rules. The teacher must ensure the student isn’t simply recognizing a pattern and blindly applying it. And when confusion of a previously-taught rule is discovered, it must be retaught.
NILD Educational Therapy®
Individual Therapy Program
4 – 40 minutes or 2 – 80 minute sessions/week
Program Distinctive (to focus on the following):
NILD Educational Therapy® was developed to treat assumed, underlying causes of learning difficulties rather than simply treating the symptoms. It is a true therapy in that it aims the intervention just above the student’s level of functioning and raises the expectations for performance. Students are trained to view themselves as competent, confident learners. The goal of NILD Educational Therapy® is to help students develop tools of independent learning in the classroom and in life.
Students in NILD Educational Therapy® receive intensive educational therapy several times per week. This can either be in individual or small group settings. These sessions include a variety of techniques designed to address students’ specific areas of difficulty and to improve their overall ability to think, reason and process information. Techniques emphasize basic skill areas such as reading, writing, and math, applying reasoning skills within each area.
Students are taught by educational therapists, who are trained specially in NILD methodology and receive on-going graduate level training to NILD certification. Regular collaboration between the educational therapists, parents and classroom teachers is to encourage assessing progress and appropriately adjusting educational programs for each student.
Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment
Small Group or Individual Therapy Program
4-40 minute or 2-80 minute sessions/week
Program Distinctive (to focus on the following):
What Is Cognitive Enrichment?
Thinking skills are cognitive skills; therefore, Cognitive Enrichment is the process of improving thinking and subsequent learning skills. The goal of public education is to ultimately produce independent thinkers who can solve problems and engage in life-long learning. As John Dewey said, “all which the schools can or need do for pupils is to develop their ability to think.”
Each content area requires thinking. Unfortunately, thinking as a skill is seldom addressed directly in school curricula, like mathematics, history or English. Rather, it is assumed that thinking skills and learning readiness will develop through the study of content. Ideally, they should, but in many cases they don’t. Many people come to the classroom or the workplace without the “learning to learn” skills they need to succeed. Cognitive deficiencies make it impossible for them to learn as well as they should, because they are unable to benefit from the content instruction, whether it comes within a public or private school or via job training, and regardless of its quality.
For such students, Cognitive Enrichment is needed and can be accomplished through focused instruction in developing one’s thinking skills and subsequent capacity to learn. Cognitive Enrichment is also beneficial for students who do not appear to have deficiencies. Just as the teaching of content is designed to increase each student’s understanding within the content domain, so too can cognitive skills be nurtured and enriched for all students.
Cognitive Functions are specific thinking abilities or skills. They can be taught and learned and strengthened at any age. There are three phases of cognitive functioning: Input—Elaboration—Output. (These phases are similar to the three phases of information processing.) At the input phase, information is taken in; at the elaboration phase information is processed through association with previous knowledge; and at the output phase the results of the processing are conveyed.
Structural Cognitive Modifiability is characterized by the belief that the structure of the brain can be changed by systematic and meaningful intervention. This position is supported by current brain research in the field of brain plasticity. If you accept this position, it follows then that intelligence is not fixed or immutable.
Mediation is the interactional process between a learner and an intentional adult (the mediator) who by interposing him/herself between the learner and the external source of stimulation guides (mediates) the learning experience by selection, focusing, and feedback. Such a learning experience is referred to as a Mediated Learning Experience (MLE).
Bridging refers to the process through which cognitive skills are transferred (bridged) to learning content.
Professor Reuven Feuerstein, the founder and director of the International Center for the Enhancement of Learning, has through clinical research identified a set of cognitive functions that can be considered prerequisites for learning. That is, learners who do not have access to these prerequisite skills will be handicapped in learning new skills and or new material regardless of the quality of instruction or the effort put forth by the learner.
Search and Teach
4-30 minute 1:1 sessions/week
SEARCH is a 20-minute individual test designed to:
Identify children vulnerable to learning difficulties
Provide a clear profile of strengths and weaknesses in neuropsychological skills,
basic to reading and the language arts
Provide a structure to guide appropriate intervention before failure has occurred
SEARCH was developed as a screening instrument for children ages 63-80 months. Its most effective use is in scanning an entire class during kindergarten or early in first grade in order to provide teachers and administrators with a grade-wide profile for the proper planning of content, organization and timing of instruction. SEARCH can also be used in clinical planning for individual children who appear to be faltering in classroom activities.
SEARCH is based on both clinical and statistical research that focuses on neuropsychological skills basic to reading and the language arts. The importance of these skills was determined via a 2-year intensive interdisciplinary study that examined 1st graders neurologically, psychiatrically, perceptually, psychologically and educationally. Results of this study revealed that those children vulnerable to learning failure lagged in developing skills relating to spatial orientation and temporal organization. A follow-up of the original group of children, validated the clinical judgment that reading failure is associated with specific types of perceptual immaturity—namely, in visual, auditory, and body-image immaturity—all relating to orientation in space and organization in time. SEARCH uses the results of this research to formulate its program, making early identification of learning disorders in children key to overcoming potential failure.
TEACH is a combination or instructional methods and fifty-five task cards that builds a child’s pre-academic skills specific to reading and the language arts. As the companion instructional element of the SEARCH & TEACH program, TEACH provides the rationale, the step by step methodology, and the teaching materials necessary for intervention with children who are found to be vulnerable to learning failure as determined by SEARCH. TEACH organizes a program of learning according to an individual child’s SEARCH profile. As such, TEACH considers a child’s strong and weak academic areas and prescribes appropriate instructional tasks basic to reading and the language arts.
The TEACH program prioritizes pre-reading tasks from simple to complex and organizes them into a practical plan of five clusters as ascertained by the results of the SEARCH test. These clusters include:
Intermodal skill clusters
Resources for all Supplemental Services:
Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment: http://www.scel.org/aboutus/feuerstein-overview.asp
Barton Reading and Spelling Systems: www.bartonreading.com
National Institute for Learning Development (NILD): www.nild.net
LD Online: www.ldonline.org
International Dyslexia Association: www.interdys.org
NILD Research: http://www.nild.net/pdf/research.pdf
Search & Teach: www.searchandteach.com